It’s not easy to deal with pain. Heat therapy has been known to provide relief from body aches.

Heat therapy works by enhancing the flow of blood in the body, which increases the flexibility of connective tissues. It is also known to be effective in treating inflamed muscle tissue as it makes it easier for the tissue to expand and contract.

This enhanced ability helps in increasing the blood flow to the affected areas and helps with faster healing of the affected tissue.

While there are several options to treat the affected body areas, a heating pad is the most comfortable, affordable and accessible piece of equipment as compared to the other options.

Read on for our expert reviews of the best heating pads available. Check the latest prices to ensure you get a great deal!

Our Picks of the 10 Best Heating Pads

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Dreamland Intelliheat Heat Pad

Dreamland Intelliheat Heat Pad

The Dreamland Intelliheat Heat Pad features instant heat up, five heat settings and technology for perfect temperature control. Read more

Beurer HK35 Electronic Heat Pad

Beurer HK35 Electronic Heat Pad

The OEKO-TEX certified Beurer HK35 Electronic Heat Pad features turbo fast heat up, three preset heat temperatures and overheat protection system. Read more

Sweet Dreams Electric Heat Pad

Sweet Dreams Electric Heat Pad

The Sweet Dreams Electric Heat Pad is a popular option featuring safety shut off, stable temperature and a premium micro-fleece fabric for extra comfort. Read more

Sanitas SHK18 Therapy Heating Pad

Sanitas SHK18 Therapy Heating Pad

The Sanitas SHK18 Therapy Heating Pad offers three temperature settings, machine washable cover and safety cut off system. Read more

MaxKare Heat Pad

MaxKare Heat Pad

The generously sized MaxKare Heat Pad is made from high-quality flannel and comes with six temperature levels, longer power cord and is machine washable. Read more

Hangsun Heat Pad

Hangsun Heat Pad

The Hangsun Heat Pad has a rapid heat feature, six preset heat settings, is machine washable and is made out of soft and comfortable fleece. Read more

Hydas Shoulder and Neck Heating Pad

Hydas Shoulder and Neck Heating Pad

The Hydas Shoulder and Neck Heating Pad has been specifically designed for pain relief in these areas and features a magnetic closure, multiple heat settings and auto shut off. Read more

MaxKare Electric Heating Pad

MaxKare Electric Heating Pad

The MaxKare Electric Heating Pad features fast heating technology for full-body heat therapy, intelligent heating settings, timer and microplush flannel for a supersoft feel. Read more

ATMOKO KingCape Series Electric Heat Pad

ATMOKO KingCape Series Electric Heat Pad

The ATMOKO KingCape Series Electric Heat Pad is made from a machine-washable soft plush and features a unique design, multiple heat settings and can be used to treat many areas of the body. Read more

Sweet Dreams Lower Back Electric Heat Pad

Sweet Dreams Lower Back Electric Heat Pad

The Sweet Dreams Lower Back Electric Heat Pad offers a secure fit for the areas it is designed to target and features three heat settings, fast heat-up time and has a premium micro-fleece finish. Read more

Best Heating Pads

1. Dreamland Intelliheat Heat Pad

Dreamland Intelliheat Heat Pad

Dreamland already has a strong reputation in the UK for manufacturing high-quality heating devices. This includes heating pads, heated mattress protectors, heated overblankets, and even some cushions. They understand comfort and the intricacies of delivering warmth without compromising that comfort. The Dreamland Intelliheat Heat Pad is a perfect example of this.

Features

3-Hour Heat Treatment

Most modern heat pads are built with internal timers that shut off the heating element after 60 to 90 minutes. This is primarily a safety feature used to prevent fires caused by accidentally leaving the heating pad turned on. Unfortunately, 1 hour isn’t usually long enough for an effective heating treatment. That means you’ll need to turn the heat pad back on multiple times during use.

The Dreamland Intelliheat Heat Pad overcomes this obstacle by using a 3-hour setting instead. It’s just as safe as a 60-minute timer but delivers a more complete and efficient heating treatment. It’s a small change that makes a surprising difference when compared to competing heat pads.

Instant Heat Up

Intelliheat technology is a big part of what sets Dreamland heating products a step above the competition. It’s used in their blankets, mattresses, and heating pads. It helps these products to quickly reach an ideal temperature and then to maintain that temperature throughout use. Sensors can respond to changes in environmental temperatures and the Intelliheat system can increase or lower its heat output to make up for those changes.

5 Available Settings

There was a time when heating pads only had options like “high” and “low”. Modern heating pads, especially those from Dreamland, allow for a finer degree of control. There are a total of five different heat settings that you can choose from with this particular model. It’s as easy as selecting a number on the control panel and then relaxing. The Intelliheat technology will handle the rest.

Pros:

  • 3-hour heat treatment is long enough to make a difference
  • The soft fabric is very comfortable
  • The Intelliheat system is capable of safely managing the temperature

Cons:

  • Not advised to use in bed
  • Surface area is smaller than average

2. Beurer HK35 Electronic Heat Pad

Beurer HK35 Electronic Heat Pad

The Beurer HK35 heating pad is a soothing heat therapy tool. Beurer has been in the market for more than 90 years and has been known for they competence and quality. The blanket is OEKO-TEX® certified. This means that no harmful chemicals or substances were used to create the heating pad and it won’t expose your skin to the harmful chemicals.

It has an inbuilt safety system that prevents it from overheating and getting your skin burnt. It prevents such events from occurring by monitoring the surface of the pad and preventing it from overheating by cutting the power off. It switches off after 90 minutes if use. It is designed to provide warmth to specific parts of the body. It also promotes blood circulation and relaxes muscles.

The heat pad can be used as a therapy for conditions such as arthritis, back ache, tension in the muscles, stomach and many other underlying issues. It is more convenient compared to hot water bottles.

Features

Turbo Fast Heat Up

The heating pad is able to heat up fast. It is ready for use after 10 minutes. This means that users can get heat on demand.

Three Preset Heat Temperatures

Users are able to choose from three preset heat settings. The heat settings vary from 50°C-75°C.

Overheat Protection System

The Beurer heat pad comes with inbuilt safety systems to prevent it from overheating. The heating will pad has sensors to monitor the temperature on the surface, when the temperature exceeds, it automatically switches off to prevent any more heating

Machine Washable

The cotton cover of the heating pad is washable. Place it in a washing machine at 40°C.

Easy to use controls

The controls are designed in a minimalist way to maintain simplicity and ease of use.

Pros:

  • It has a fast heat up time
  • Inbuilt safety features to prevent it from overheating
  • Machine washable
  • Easy to use controls

Cons:

  • Permanently switches itself off if bent

3. Sweet Dreams Electric Heat Pad

Sweet Dreams Electric Heat Pad

Enjoying sweet, pleasant dreams might seem like an impossible reality if you suffer from chronic pain. Millions of people across the globe struggle to get a good night’s sleep due to aching joints or muscles. Sweet Dreams is one of the leading manufacturers of products designed to offer relief to these problems. Their heating pads are easily one of the most popular items and for good reason. They are affordable, made with high-quality materials, and have a handful of useful features.

Features

Micro-Fleece Exterior

The heat is only one of the important elements of a heating pad. The heat won’t be as useful if the heating pad itself is uncomfortable to use. This is a common problem with cheap heating pads with tough, plastic exteriors. Some manufacturers make an effort to cover the plastic and heating elements with somewhat comfortable cushions. Sweet Dreams takes it a step further and uses premium micro-fleece fabric that very comfortable, maintains warmth, and is hand-washable

90-Minute Safety Shut Off

What’s the point of using a heating pad before bed if you have to remember to turn it off? Sweet Dreams wants you to fall asleep and that means the heating pad needs to be able to turn itself off. An automatic shut-off feature isn’t exactly a new and groundbreaking feature, but it’s important to have nonetheless. And the fact that this heating pad uses a 90-minute timer instead of 60 means you get more treatment before shut off.

Stable Temperature

Several factors can influence the overall temperature and effectiveness of the heating pad. These factors, such as the temperature in the room, can cause the temperature of the heating pad to fluctuate. Sweet Dreams uses internal technology to maintain a constant temperature despite any environmental changes.

Pros:

  • Quick heat-up time
  • Maintains a constant temperature throughout use
  • Overheat protection and 90-minute shut-off timer

Cons:

  • Short lifespan if used frequently (1 – 2 years)

4. Sanitas SHK18 Therapy Heating Pad

Sanitas SHK18 Therapy Heating Pad

How often do you have to prepare a hot water bottle just to relieve your sore muscles? While it works, there’s no question that it can be bothersome. Thankfully, the Sanitas SHK18 heat pad gives you a more convenient option. It provides the familiar warmth of a hot water bottle, but what’s great is that the heat lasts much longer. Without a doubt, it’s your quickest access to the many wonders of heat therapy. Keep reading to find out more about this amazing product.

Features

Three Temperature Settings

There’s a switch control that enables you to choose from three different temperature settings. It’s a no-nonsense approach to providing you with the right amount of heat you need. Moreover, it’s powered by electronic temperature regulation technology, which means that the temperature will remain consistent while you’re using the heat pad.

Machine Washable Cover

The heat pad is covered by soft cotton, which is certified by OEKO-TEX®. It’s safe to use even for the most sensitive skin. You can also simply throw it in the washing machine if it needs to be cleaned.

Safety Switch-off System

This Sanitas heat pad, along with all the brand’s heat pads, is equipped with an overheated protection system. What this means is that it turns off after 90 minutes of use. You don’t have to worry about dozing off and getting uncomfortably warm.

Pros:

  • The three temperature settings provide enough variety for you to relieve your aching muscles. The illuminated controller looks nice and intuitive to use as well.
  • The overheating safety protection system shuts off the heat pad automatically, ensuring that you get just the right amount of heat therapy.
  • This heating pad comes with a 2-year guarantee.

Cons:

  • The Sanitas SHK18 heat pad is a bit small. It may not be suitable for people who want heat pads to wrap around their knees.

5. MaxKare Heat Pad

MaxKare Heat Pad

In many cases, heat therapy is the best solution for some conditions such as arthritis and muscle spasms and muscle inflammation. The MaxKare Heat Pad is designed to make heat therapy more convenient, safer, and effective. Not only is the heating pad mobile, but it is also effective at producing the right amount of heat for the purpose.

Features

6-Level Heating Level

This electric heating pad is designed for fast heating. Importantly, however, the MaxKare Heat Pad has 6 heating levels settings. This makes it easy for users to match the heat output with their needs and or comfort level.

Long Power Cord

It comes with a long electric cord. At 230 cm, the electric cord gives users enough range to move around with the electric pad making it possible to use the pad in a wide variety of environments.

High-Quality Flannel

For health and hygiene purposes, this electric heating pad comes with a high-quality flannel that is machine washable, making it easy to keep the pad clean. The soft-touch flannel is also designed to preserve heat, which enhances the functionality pf the heating pad.

Large Size

Unlike many other similarly-prized pads that come in small sizes, this heating pad measures 12” by 24”. Importantly, the heat distribution is effective as every part of the pad emits comfortable warmth. Additionally, the entire heating pad has a soft structure for a more comfortable and relaxing experience. It relaxes your back, legs, abdomen, neck or any other part of your body you use the pad on.

Certification

The MaxKare Heat Pad has GS, CE, and the OEKO-TEX® 100 standard quality certification. As such, you can purchase the product without worrying about its quality and safety.

Pros:

  • Heats up fast
  • Even heat distribution resulting in no cold spot over the entire pad
  • The heat setting range makes precise heat output possible
  • Generously sized pad

Cons:

  • The ON/OFF switch button could be better

6. Hangsun Heat Pad

Hangsun Heat Pad

Cold and pain can be a real struggle, especially in winter. The Hangsun heat pad is the solution to all your woes. It is an electric heat pad that also acts works fir heat therapy. It can be used to relieve pain in your shoulder, back, neck, spine, stomach, knees and feet. It promotes blood circulation in your body and offers relief from arthritis pain.

The heat pad can be used to release tension on intense muscles. Relax your body using heat therapy, it has been known to be an alternative to medicines and it is highly effective. The heat pad features a rapid heat feature, this feature heats up the pad ten minutes to give you heat on demand. It comes with 6 preset heat settings that can be controlled using a detachable slide. It also features an overheat safety protection.

Features

Preset Heat Settings

The heat pad comes with six preset heat settings. The temperature varies from 50°C to 65°C. The temperature can be controlled with a slide and the slide is detachable. This gives users a high level of personalisation.

Heat Therapy

The heat pad offers heat therapy for pain relief. It is able to relieve pain in muscles without any medication. Relieves pain experienced in the back, stomach, spine, neck, abdomen, feet and knees. The heat therapy also enhances blood circulation around the organs and throughout the body.

Overheat Safety Feature

The heat pad automatically switches itself off after 90 minutes of continuous usage. This is to prevent it from overheating. If it overheats it can burn the skin or cause burn damage to other things.

Machine Washable

The heat pad and its protective cover are both washable. You can put both in your washing machine and wash them just like regular laundry.

Soft And Comfortable Touch

It is made out of fleece which is soft and comfortable. It offers a premium feeling and its boy uncomfortable to touch or feel.

Pros:

  • Provides heat therapy for pain relief
  • It is washable
  • Overheat Safety Feature which automatically switches it off
  • Soft and comfortable material

Cons:

  • Lead is a little bit bulky

7. Hydas Shoulder and Neck Heating Pad

Hydas Shoulder and Neck Heating Pad

Most heating pads are flat and designed to be used on the back, sides, or legs. They can be particularly troublesome when you’re experiencing pain in your neck or shoulders. You might be able to wiggle into an awkward position, but that increases the risk of harming yourself further. A much better solution is to invest in a heating pad designed specifically for the neck and shoulders. This washable neck and shoulder heating pad from Hydas is one of the best on the market.

Features

Magnetic Closure

For a heating pad to work on the neck and shoulders it needs to be shaped accordingly and have some mechanism for staying in place. This particular model from Hydas using a simple magnetic closure to hold the heating pad in position. You can relax and even move around without the heating pad falling to the ground. Of course, you can’t move too far from the outlet because of the wire.

100 Per Cent Machine Washable

Hydas did not cut any corners when it came to designing their latest heating pad. These materials, while extremely comfortable, are also 100 per cent machine washable. All that you need to do is disconnect the control unit from the heating pad. It takes less than ten seconds and then your heating pad is ready to go into the wash.

Multiple Settings With Auto Shut Off

The Hydas neck and shoulder heating pad has four unique heat settings for your comfort. It is capable of reaching these temperatures in a fairly short period. It’s not as fast as some of the competitors, but most of those competitors are designed for use on the neck and shoulders. The heating pad also has a built-in shut-off feature that will automatically turn off the heating pad after 120 minutes of continuous use.

Pros:

  • 2-hour shut-off timer provides plenty of time for treatment
  • Comfortable material feels nice and warm against the skin
  • Magnet enclosure keeps the heating pad firmly in place

Cons:

  • Short power cord means limited movement

8. MaxKare Electric Heating Pad

MaxKare Electric Heating Pad

Wouldn’t it be nice if you could experience a full-body heat therapy without leaving your home? Well, there’s good news for you. The MaxKare electric heating pad does exactly this. This heating pad is extra-large, providing full-body relaxation. Now, you can relieve your aching neck, shoulders, and back—all at the same time! Read on to learn more about the features of this one-of-a-kind heat pad.

Features

Extra Large Heat Pad

It’s not often that you come across a heating pad as large as this MaxKare electric heating pad. With a size of 24″ x 33″, you wouldn’t have any problems delivering heat to your major body parts. The big size means you can get rid of fatigue and muscle stiffness simultaneously. It has the perfect design to be worn around the neck and shoulders, but you can also wrap it around your back, abs, waist, or legs.

Intelligent Heating Setting

There are a whopping six heating levels, so rest assured that you’ll get just the right amount of heat you want. There’s also a timer setting to ensure safety and energy conservation. The heat pad turns off on its own after 1.5 hours of use.

Comfortable and Washable Material

The heating pad is covered by a flannel microplush, ensuring maximum comfort while you’re wrapped by the heat pad. Not only is it comfortable, it also helps in distributing the heat evenly throughout your body.

Pros:

  • It is equipped with fast heating technology, so it heats up within a short time. The six temperature settings also make it a very flexible heating pad.
  • The large size allows you to deliver heat in large body parts simultaneously.
  • The heat pad is slightly weighted to ensure a snug fit.
  • The power cable is 6 feet long, allowing you to move freely while wearing the heat pad.

Cons:

  • While larger than most electric heating pads, it may still be a bit short particularly for tall people. The heating pad may not reach low enough down the back.

9. ATMOKO KingCape Series Electric Heat Pad

ATMOKO KingCape Series Electric Heat Pad

Do you want an electric heating pad that lives up to its claims while looking fashionable at the same time? If you answered yes, then the ATMOKO KingCape Series electric back warmer should definitely sit on top of your list. What stands out the most is its unique design, which proves functional as well. It is specifically made to fit all kinds of body types while delivering and distributing heat efficiently.

Features

King-Size Design

Wearing this electric heating pad will surely make you feel like a king—and not just because of its size. It provides utmost comfort throughout your use, thanks to the unique design that provides a snug fit. Measuring 23.6″ x 33.5″, it’s large enough to treat your sore neck, shoulders, and back at the same time. It also promotes healthier blood circulation.

Three Heat Settings

Within seconds after hitting the power button, the heat pad heats up almost right away. This is the perfect way to experience the benefits of heat therapy whenever you need it. You have three heat settings to choose from, ranging from 113 to 149 F.

Soft Plush

This heating pad comes with a machine-washable soft plush. It’s so comfortable that you’d want to use it throughout the day. The soft flannel is skin-friendly as well, so there’s no need to worry about damaging your skin.

Pros:

  • Its large size makes it one of the most versatile heating pads on the market. You wouldn’t have any problems relieving pain from your neck, shoulders, and back simultaneously.
  • The three heat settings allow you to choose your desired warmth for various needs. Whether you want to treat muscle pain or simply want to stay warm, rest assured that you’ll get the heat level right.
  • The overheating protection system ensures that you’d stay safe while using the heat pad. It turns off automatically after 90 minutes, preventing excessive heating.

Cons:

  • While the size of the ATMOKO KingCape Series electric heating pad is one of its biggest benefits, one downside is the neck circumference. It may have quite a bit of slack around the neck, which might lead to inefficient heat distribution.

10. Sweet Dreams Lower Back Electric Heat Pad

Sweet Dreams Lower Back Electric Heat Pad

Is your back pain not allowing you to carry out your daily chores optimally? If so, you may want to try using the Sweet Dreams lower back electric heat pad. Daily use of heat therapy may be just what you need to put an end to your back problems. Equipped with three heat settings and designed with premium micro-fleece, this heating pad would surely be a great addition to your daily self-care.

Features

Three Heat Settings

Choose from three different heat settings to ensure that you get the right level of heat based on your unique needs. Depending on how severe your aches are, you can adjust the heat setting from mild to intense. The controller is easy to use, so you can adjust the amount of heat in one click.

Secure Fit

One of the best things about the Sweet Dreams lower back electric heating pad is its unique design. It comes with an adjustable strap to make sure that the pad fits snugly around your waist. It fits most waist sizes. The secure fit also means you can move around freely while wearing the heat pad.

Fast Heat Up Time

When your muscles are aching, you definitely want to get relief as quickly as possible. Wrap this heat pad around your lower back and hit the power button. It heats up right away to deliver heat when and where you need it.

Pros:

  • This heat pad is made from soft and luxurious fabric. You wouldn’t feel like taking it off, even after you’re done with your heat therapy session. It’s machine-washable as well, so it’s easy to keep fresh and clean.
  • It provides therapeutic relief for people suffering from arthritis.
  • The advanced overheat protection system shuts off the heat pad after 90 minutes. This means you can sleep without worrying about excessive heat burning your skin.

Cons:

  • The Velcro strap may be bothersome to use, especially when it touches the skin.
  • Not as versatile as other heat pads, but works well for its intended purpose of relieving lower back pain specifically.

Heating Pad Buying Guide

What is a Heat Pad?

Simply put, it’s an equipment that produces radiant heat. Heating pads are often used for pain management as well as for enhancing comfort during the cold winter months. Many different types of heating pads are available in the market ranging from high-end pads that include temperature sensors and timers to basic pads that simply heat up when plugged in.

How Does a Heat Pad Work?

Heat PadThere are many different types of heating pads that use different means to achieve the end result which is radiant heating. There are electric heat pads, chemical heat pads and microwaveable heat pads. A microwaveable heat pad needs to be put in the microwave in order to absorb heat which it then radiates. Similarly, electric pad uses electricity to generate heat and heat generation is achieved through chemical reactions in a chemical pad.

How Do You Use a Heat Pad?

Sometimes, it’s not easy to determine the origination point of pain. Therefore, the first thing you need to do is figure out the originating point for heat therapy to be effective.

Heat pads are available in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, and many heat pads also come with different heat settings. It is important to make sure that you have a piece of clothing between the heating pad and your skin. Heating pad should never be put on directly on your skin to avoid the risk of burns. It is also important to ensure that heating pads are not used excessively. In many cases, it suggested to not use a heating pad for more than 20 minutes at one time unless recommended by a licensed physician.

For effective use, you should put a piece of clothing on the body part that is in pain and place the heat pad directly over it. If you have a heat pad with multiple heat settings, use the highest setting to treat back pain whereas lower settings should be used for pain in the shoulder areas or other body parts.

What Precautions Do I Need to Take When Using a Heat Pad?

Keep in mind that a heating pad can cause burns and therefore, you need to use take certain precautions when using it.

  1. It is recommended to use a heating pad for a maximum of 20 minutes each hour.
  2. You should never sleep with a heating pad.
  3. Always remember to have a piece of clothing such as a towel between your skin and the heating pad to avoid burns.
  4. Heating pad should not be combined with ointments or topical rubs. Use them after using the pad.
  5. Heating pad should never be used near water.
  6. It is recommended to begin with the lower setting and use the higher settings only if needed.
  7. Always follow the instructions supplied with the heating pad.

What is Heat Therapy?

Heat therapy is the process of using heat to get relief from common aches and pains. A variety of methods are used to induce heat therapy including infrared heat therapy, moist heat therapy and dry heat therapy. It is not only one of the most common home remedies to get relief from pain but it is also used by professionals for treatment of sports injuries as well as for chronic pain relief.

As mentioned in the beginning, heat helps in increasing blood flow to the affected area and that promotes healing. It also offers quick relief from pain, muscle spasm and joint stiffness among other things.

Features to Look for in a Heating Pad

Different Types

There are many different types of heating pads including an electric pad, a chemical pad and a microwaveable pad.

A microwaveable heating pad is generally made of some kind of fabric and some kind of grain. You can make these at home or buy it at a store. It is simply a closed fabric containing the grain. It is convenient to use and you can get it ready by microwaving it for 1 to 3 minutes.

Chemical heating pads make use of chemicals such as sodium acetate. When you press a metal piece in this super saturated chemical, it leads to a chemical reaction which starts a crystallisation process resulting in instant heat. Chemical pads can also be reused by boiling them in water which brings them down to room temperature.

The most popular option is electric heating pads. These consist of a sturdy material housing an inner electric oil that radiates heat when plugged in. The biggest advantage of an electric heating pad is that these produce even heat throughout the pad. Many electric pads come with various heat settings allowing complete control over the amount of heat you want.

Size and Shape

The choice of size and shape depends on the area of your body you want to treat. Thankfully, heating pads are available in a wide variety of sizes and you can always find a size for a particular area. There are bigger sizes available for heating wider areas whereas smaller pads are recommended for targeted pain relief.

Machine Washable

Machine Washable Heat PadIt is recommended to buy a model that is machine washable to make it easy for you to keep it clean.

Auto Shut-Off

As mentioned above, it is not recommended to use a heat pad continuously for a period of more than 20 minutes in an hour. Therefore, you should buy a model that comes with auto shut-off function as it can burn you if used for a longer period. Auto shut-off is also necessary as you might simply fall asleep when using a heat pad.

Timer

A timer makes it easy for you to control the exact time for your heat therapy sessions. Many models offer a variety of timer functions.

Heat Settings

Many pads come equipped with a variety of heat settings to allow you to customise your heat therapy sessions. Some pads also come equipped with memory function for extra comfort.

Targeting Different Parts of Your Body

Neck and Shoulders

You will find a number of heating pads shaped to target neck and shoulder pain. These are contoured to your neck and you can easily drape them around your shoulders for targeted pain relief.

Back

These pads are big in size to allow you to get relief from back pain by targeting your spine. These are also available in smaller sizes to target a particular area.

Knees

These pads are designed to provide heat relief around the knee.

Stomach and Abdomen

These are elongated heating pads designed to provide relief from pain in stomach and abdomen.

Feet

These heating pads typically come with a pocket allowing you to warm your feet. Some models are available in extra-large size to allow warming two pairs of feet simultaneously.